Jack Russell Terrier dog breed characteristics and facts

Jack Russell Terrier dog breed characteristics and facts


Terrier Dogs


10 to 15 inches tall at the shoulder


13 to 17 pounds


10 to 15 years

Jack Russell Terrier is a bright, independent, and relatively clever animal. They were developed in England by the end of the 18 th century as hunting dogs, trained to drive foxes out of their burrows. Jack Russell Terriers may appear as a loyal best friend or a little rascal who throws a temper tantrum, whichever situation is true, only experienced dog parents should adopt them. However, if you can manage a bit of aggression and keep up with vigorous exercise, they will reward you with loyal friendship. The needs of Jack Russell Terriers can be met by those who seek energetic and active companions. Because of their intellect, the breed excels in agility and obedience competitions.

Jack Russell Terrier Facts

  • Origin: England
  • Size: 13-14 inches
  • Lifespan: 13-16 years
  • Breed Group: Terrier
  • Coat: Smooth, broken, or wire coat
  • Temperament: Energetic, playful, intelligent, stubborn
  • Exercise needs: High
  • Training: Needs early socialization and training
  • Grooming: Moderate
  • Health concerns: Eye problems, luxating patellas and hereditary deafness

Jack Russell Terrier Overview

Called the Parson Russell Terrier in some areas of the world, it was developed 200 years ago in England to hunt fox in the south of England. Parson John Russell, “Jack” to his buddies, needed a hunting dog that was both efficient and proficient, so he opted to build one. The two-century-old outcome was a smart, daring, and athletic doggy who charmed with a mixture of pace, intelligence, and a hunger to hunt.

Adding a Jack Russell Terrier to your home isn’t something you ought to take lightly; Jack Russell Terriers aren’t for anyone. They can be a chore to train, keep under control, and require a lot of attention, exercise, and vigilant supervision. If you’ve never raised a dog or aren’t willing to put in the necessary time and effort, the Jack Russell Terrier is not the breed for you. Here’s everything you should be familiar with Jack Russell Terriers. They are intelligent creatures but are also very independent. It implies that they can be tough to train, but they can also be adequately educated if you continue to be unswerving and consistent. They are compatible with both children and older folks. However, they get quite energetic and eager to play since those interactions incredibly excite them. They must always be held on a leash when strolls outside of an area with a fence. They can never be permitted to walk around without a leash near anything that may be exciting for their prey instincts, including squirrels, felines, and automobiles.

Jack Russell Terrier Highlights

Jack Russell Terriers are energetic and enjoy digging and playing. They require a securely fenced yard to release this energy. However, underground electronic fencing will not retain them. Furthermore, they have been known to stair up trees and jump over a 6-foot chain-link fence to get away. First-time or bashful dog owners should try another breed; even seasoned dog owners have difficulty with this breed. Jack Russell Terriers are strong-willed and require a best competent owner who can set borders and enforce them.

Jacks have also been known to scream for fun, so they are not suitable for city life. Furthermore, if they aren’t raised with dogs, they can be controversial when they’re older. Jack Russell Terriers are adorable when they are with their families but should not be left in a yard. When you go on a trip, leave a radio on to keep them from being lonely and anxious.

Jacks are bouncy and will spring up on people and items; they can jump more than 5 feet. Jack Russells have a strong prey drive and will race to pursue smaller critters. A dog checking yard is not a fenced yard for a Jack. Jack Russell Terriers need multiple walks each day, or a few great games in the field, and they are active inside and out. They make excellent jogging companions.

If you’re contemplating getting a dog, don’t purchase a puppy from a puppy mill, a pet shop, or a breeder who does not give health clearances or assurances. Search for a trustworthy breeder who tests her breeding dogs to ensure that they are free of genetic disease that might impact the puppies and breeds for sound temperament.

Also, to own this particular breed, you should consider the following tips. As soon as you have this little dynamo home, you must start training up immediately. Be consistent and patiently firm from day one. Ensure your dog gets plenty of exercise and mental stimulation. Let them meet other dogs and people to socialize fully and regularly visit the vet. With exercising the best training and love, Jack Russell Terriers can make more fabulous companions.

Jack Russell Terrier History

The Jack Russell Terrier is an exciting and charming breed with a rich history that can be traced back to early 19th-century England. The creation of the breed was made possible largely by the work of one extraordinary man, Reverend John “Jack” Russell – a person who has had a profound impact on the breed’s genetic qualities and purpose.

During the early 1800s, Reverend John Russell of Dartmouth, England, a devoted fox hunter and a parson, strove to breed the “ultimate hunting dog.” He needed a dog that would have no qualms about chasing a fox into its den, a formula that would necessitate abandoning all caution in favor of extraordinary speed, determination, and intelligence. Thus, the Jack Russell Terrier was created.

Russell had a special affection for a little white Terrier – puppy Trump, who lay the foundation of the breed. Revered Russell particularly appreciated all the qualities of a hunting dog – fearlessness, quickness, and a firm and stable spirit. Trump started to breed through the best suitable individuals from several generations; That is the way the breed of dog Jack Russell terrier established.

Their development was aimed to obtain working dogs who are perfect fox hunters. The Jack Russell Terriers are relatively tiny, and this made them able to slip easily into the narrow fox dens and burrows. Their muscular body and strong legs ensured that they keep up with the fox relentlessly. These dogs were referred to as “go to ground,” implying that they would chase a fox underground and keep barking to notify the hunters about their location.

As the sport of fox hunting became more popular in England, the demand for these able-bodied terriers grew as well. Their sheer presence and drive in the field drew them to hunters and farmers alike. By the mid-1800s, a decade that saw the rise many great Jack Russell Terriers, the terrier had become much more than just ordinary farm dog it became a well-known working dog. However, they were not yet well recognized, and the breed would not be officially recognized as the Jack Russell Terrier for another century. It was not until 1989 that the United Kingdom’s Kennel Club officially recognized the breed, and the United States would do the same in 2000 when the American Kennel Club recognized the breed as Parson Russell Terrier. North American breeders focused on the Russells and created separate breeds for small and long-hair types.

There is no denying that, in today’s world, Jack Russell Terriers have come a long way from their original purpose and function. Today, they are lovable family companions around the globe that have captured many dog owners’ hearts. Their sunny disposition, endless enthusiasm, and devotion turn every pet parent’s life into a thrilling and fun adventure. However, these dogs’ hunting instincts and need for physical activity have not diminished over time. Jack Russell Terriers thrive in an active environment and are as active partners in dog sports and agility as ever. Regular physical activity is their well-being. Since they are very intelligent dogs active in sports, they need to be stimulated physically and mentally.

Their physical strength combines with a brave and impudent aura that distinguishes Jack Russell Terriers from others. They are mischievous and stubborn creatures, making them difficult to train for inexperienced dog owners. However, responsive and unambiguous training with lots of positive praise and reinforcement helps to build a strong bond with the owner. Their knowledge and the desire to learn also make Jag Terriers an ideal choice for doggy therapy. Warm and loving, the dog quickly establishes an emotional connection with humans. Therefore, Jag Terriers are used to helping children and adults with emotional support.

Jack Russell Terrier Size

Since distinct kinds were employed for specific purposes and different terrains, Jack Russells varied a lot in size. Shorty Jacks, Jack Russells who stand 10 to 12 inches and are longer than they are tall, are more Corgi or Dachshund looking than the taller, more symmetrical breeding AKC-registered dogs and those registered by the Jack Russell Terrier Club of America or the National Kennel Club. At the shoulder, they must reach 10 to 15 inches tall and weigh 13 to 17 pounds.

Jack Russell Terrier Personality

Quite energetic and lively, the small-bodied, brave Jack Russell Terrier will follow his delights over fences and down the streets. The breed is highly intelligent but extremely independent and obnoxious. Known to be friend at heart with individuals, the jack will not reflect how he gets inflamed with other dogs and animals that look like prey, for example, cats. He is frequently at risk due to his little size but will not retreat. Lengthy workouts can make him bored to death; hence they should not be more than ten 15-minute workouts. The term jackhammer emerges from the jack’s manner of barking. A proper jack is never shy and is always affectionate and outward going. Like any dog, the Jack Russell needs strong obedience training at an early stage to promote good health. They require maximum exposure to different individuals, places, figures, and experiences to be a well-rounded family.

Jack Russell Terrier Health

Jack Russell Terriers are generally a healthy breed, but they can be prone to some health concerns, as all breeds can. Not all of them will occur in this breed, but the most optimal thing to do if you are contemplating this breed is to get acquainted with them. And be sure that when you purchase a pug from a breeder, find one who will willingly show you the puppies’ parents’ health clearances. These should be clearances from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals for patellas and from the Canine Eye Registry Foundation and certifying that a dog has normal eyesight.

Given that certain genetic diseases will only occur once an individual has reached adulthood, health clearances are not accessible for dogs under the age of 2 years. There’s no risk a conscious breeder will breed his dogs till they’re at minimum two or three years old. For instance, the Jack Russell Terrier Club of America and other breeders have well-defined guidelines for hereditary defects, and the latter may only register dogs that have passed a certain veterinarian examination. Several potential considerations can affect Jack Russell Terriers:

  • Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
  • Deafness
  • Patellar Luxation
  • Glaucoma
  • Lens Luxation

Jack Russell Terrier Grooming And Coat Color

The Parsons Russell Terrier is available in two coat variations: smooth and unclothed. However, the double coat is rough or wiry. The rough coat is just rough, with eyebrows and a beard. However, some Jacks have rough coats that are longer than bare coats and have a covering of about 2-4 inches. In any event, the rough coat will not be long, curly, or wavy. Enjoy the look of the broken or smooth coat. Little Jacks come in many different colors, including white, white with black or tan spots, as well as tricolor: white, Black & brown.

The white on their bodies draws the eye of hunters to the field. Both coat types require only weekly brushing to remove dead and loose hair but will require stripping once or twice annual for broken or rough coats. Furthermore, their nails must be kept trimmed once or twice a month, so they do not click on the floor.

Short, neatly trimmed nails, and your Jack should be kept in good condition through regular interaction, as should your back be as vigorous as your Jack when you’re being greeted. To avoid tartar accumulation and periodontal disease, it is also critical to brush the teeth with a dog toothbrush at least twice or three times each week, although every day is preferable. As a pup, get your Jack used to grooming and handling.

Jack Russell Terrier Children And Other Pets

Although Jack Russell Terriers are loving dogs, they do not tolerate interaction with young children. Moreover, they are untidy, rough, yappy, and can snap when mishandled. It is worth considering teaching the kid how to approach the dog and touch it, safe for the latter. Dogs should never be left alone with small children, and in no case should a child be able to run to an animal sprawling on a sofa or gnawing at a bone. It is better for parents to carefully study the peculiarities of raising a pet and teach the child these rules.

Some Jack Russell Terriers can be aggressive with other dogs, especially those of the same sex. They are also highly driven by prey and will hunt and kill cats and other small animals. If this is your first experience with a dog, consider not owning a Jack Russell Terrier dog. This dog breed is best discovered in homes where residents are older who know how to handle the breed correctly.